What is an evaporative water cooling tower?
Evaporative cooling towers are industrial components used to cool water to near-ambient wet-bulb temperatures. These cooling towers function on the evaporative cooling principle. They are used to cool water, not air. Their applications are not only in the industries but also in large buildings such as huge malls or office spaces. The heat is transferred from the cooling tower to the environment from industrial processes, chillers, etc. Evaporative Water Cooling towers are utilized by almost every industry to eliminate heat and use cold water for different needs in the industry like cooling down the machinery, hardening molten metal, etc.
Evaporative cooling towers usually cool water to 85F but it can also achieve temperatures as low as 65F. For cooling large amounts of water, they are very economical for all industries. The evaporative cooling towers normally have a fan motor so very less amount of energy is used making it one of the best energy efficient cooling systems.
Basic Working of evaporative water cooling towers:
The evaporative cooling towers permit little parts of water to evaporate into a moving air stream that helps in notable cooling to the rest of the stream of water. Energy is absorbed by the evaporating water from the remaining water thus lowering its temperature. The condition should be such that the air absorbs the water but it should not become saturated enough to evaporate. Higher humidity levels means that the air would not be able to absorb as much water and the cooling effect will be less and vice versa.
The principle of evaporative cooling is used to cool the hot water that comes from the processes or machinery. An Evaporative type of heat transfer or rejection takes place here. A part of the water that is cooled results in a remarkably higher cooling to the stream of water. Therefore Cooling towers are often referred to as heat rejection equipment that cool water by extracting and transferring the heat from water to the atmosphere.
Evaporative water cooling towers have a significant advantage over the air-cooled rejection devices or dry cooled rejection devices in terms of cooling as evaporative cooling towers help in achieving lower water temperatures than the later.
Primary applications of evaporative cooling towers include:
- Chiller Condensers
- Hydraulic Oil
- Air Compressors
Components of evaporative water cooling tower:
- Cooling Tower Hot Water Distribution System:
There is an open basin above each fill. It receives hot water that is piped to every cell in the tower.
- Cooling Tower Hot Water Basin:
From the name, it is apparent that this basin receives hot water. The hot water enters through a wave suppressor splash box.
- Cooling Tower Fan:
The fans used here are individually adjustable propeller type and driven by v-belts. They are protected with a belt guard, or sometimes with drive shafts and gearboxes.
- Cooling Tower Fill, Louvers, and Drift Eliminators:
Thermoformed PVC is used to make fill sheets, louvers and drift eliminators. The fills are kept elevated above the floor of the cold water basin.
- Cooling Tower Cold Water Basin:
The supply of water is from the discharge of circulating water systems to the distribution basin. The cooling tower pump suction takes place from there. Generally accessories that are used are a side suction connection or a hole and bolt circle that is in the floor of the basin for ideal gravity flow.
- Cooling Tower Pump:
The pumps in an evaporative water cooling tower can be of different sizes depending on the size of the cooling tower used in the particular industry or application.